George Washington Carver was a scientist who did more to raise the peanut’s public profile than any other figure in American life, with the possible exception of former farmer-turned-president Jimmy Carter and Planters’ Mr. Peanut.
Carver’s work with peanuts and other crops at Alabama’s famed Tuskegee Institute benefited millions of farmers in the first half of the 20th century.
Food science is a field viewed with mixed feelings by many these days. But Carver’s research was seen at the time as a blessing for farmers, especially for African-Americans struggling to make a living across the rural South. Cotton was king, or so the old saying went, but cotton also robbed the soil of all nutrients. Carver promoted peanuts, soybeans and sweet potatoes as crops that could restore farmland to productivity.
But he didn’t stop there. Carver realized farmers wouldn’t grow these plants unless there was a strong enough demand for them. So he created uses for these crops that extended far beyond the kitchen — some 285 uses for peanuts alone, according to a 1941 Time magazine article.
Carver cared not just for the health of the land but the health of the farmers, Twitty added, noting that the diet of poor African-Americans at the time was often referred to as the “Three M’s”: Meat, meal and molasses. Carver promoted crops designed to enrich the diet.
A man of faith as well as science and a very talented artist, Carver took a green approach to life that many would recognize today. “I love to think of nature as an unlimited broadcasting system, through which God speaks to us every hour, if we will only tune in,” he once said.
Besides championing farmers, Carver promoted natural medicines and believed in recycling. He was “a pioneer of the green manure movement,” said Gary R. Kremer, author of 2011’s “George Washington Carver: A Biography” and executive director of the State Historical Society of Missouri.
Kremer said Carver was ultimately unsuccessful in his dream to transform the South and its economy, largely because so many farmers didn’t own the land they worked. But the author said Carver transformed the lives of so many others by inspiring and empowering them.
Born a slave in the last years of the Civil War, Carver became one of the most prominent African-Americans in what was then a legally segregated United States. Henry Ford was his friend. Time lauded him as the “Black Leonardo.” So potent a symbol did he become that eight years after his death in 1943, the federal government issued a commemorative half dollar honoring him and Booker T. Washington, Tuskegee’s founder and first president. Carver’s birthplace in southwestern Missouri was also turned into a national monument and park.
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This cookie, reproduced as worded in George Washington Carver’s 1916 bulletin, “How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing It for Human Consumption,” has a delicacy, an elegance, not associated with the robust kids’ cookie made with peanut butter. “Sweet milk” is regular, whole milk. We added 3¿4 teaspoon salt with the dry ingredients and used lightly salted nuts. The recipe calls for vanilla to taste; we used 2 teaspoons. Carver’s instruction to “bake quickly” today would mean baking the cookies in a 375 degree oven; we baked them 17-19 minutes. For ground peanuts, chop in a food processor until coarsely ground.
Peanut Cookies, Number One
3 cups flour
1/2 cup butter
1 cup sweet milk
1 cup sugar
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 1¿2 cups ground peanuts (9 ounces)
Cream butter and sugar; add eggs well beaten; now add the milk and flour; flavor to taste with vanilla; add the peanuts last; drop one spoonful of the cooky in well greased pans; bake quickly.
Yield: 6 dozen
Nutrition information per serving: 63 calories, 3 g fat, 1 g saturated fat, 9 mg cholesterol, 7 g carbohydrates, 2 g protein, 44 mg sodium, 0 g fiber.